Parenting Styles in Relation to Self-Esteem and School Performance of Senior High Students



Parenting styles provide the emotional climate for interaction between parents and children and have significant impact on the family’s quality of life.   School performance is considered as the adolescents’ capacity to interact effectively with the school environment by getting the general point average of their grades in the four quarters of School Year 2018-2019.  This paper examined the effects of parenting styles on self-esteem and school performance among the Senior High students of Tubigon, Bohol, Philippines. The study utilized the descriptive normative survey method of research in gathering data through the use of a standardized survey tool in getting the parenting styles and self-esteem of the respondents. Data mining or desk review was conducted in securing the academic performance of the Senior High School of Tubigon, Bohol. Data were processed using averaging, Freeman Halton Test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Chi-Square. Majority of the 400 respondents yielded similar results in the four parenting styles, first is authoritative in both mothers (52.5 percent) and fathers (46.5 percent). It is followed by the permissive, father (21.5 percent) and mother (17.8 percent). It is followed by ambivalent parenting with fathers (18.8 percent) and mothers (17 percent). The majority (75.5 percent) of the respondents have high self-esteem. Almost a fourth (24.5 percent) had average self-esteem, and no one reflected low self-esteem. Nearly half (45.8 percent) of the total number of respondents had satisfactory school performance, more than a third (36 percent) had an outstanding rating, above a tenth (14 percent) had Very Satisfactory, and very few reflected Fairly Satisfactory (4.3 percent) results. The result of Freeman-Halton test revealed that there is no statistically significant association in the fathers’ and mothers’ parenting style and the age-groups of the respondents. Chi-square test revealed that parenting styles of both the father (X2=7.717, df=3, p<0.10) and the mother (X2 =7.683, df=3, p<0.05) are statistically associated with the sex of the respondents. As to the relationship between self-esteem and academic performance, chi-square revealed a significant result. There is strong evidence of a difference (p-value < 0.05) between the mean ranks of at least one pair of the indicated categories. There is strong evidence that suggests that parenting styles have some bearing on how students perform at school.

Full Text: PDF


Abedi A, Aarizi HR, Sobhaninejad M. The relationship between motivation and academic achievement of high school students in Isfahan with their characteristics. Scientific-Research Journal of Shahed University. 2005; 12(12): 29–38. Persian.
Al-Mutalq, H. M. (1981). Ittijahat tarbeyat eltefl fi Almamlakah Al Arabeyah Al Soudeyah [Child education in Saudi Arabia attitudes]. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Sciences’ House for Printing and Publication.
, R. P., & Goh, D. H. (2006). Authoritarian parenting style in Asian societies: A cluster-analytic investigation. Contemporary family therapy, 28(1), 131-151. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 April 2019).
Antonopoulou, K., Alexopoulos, D. A., & Maridaki-Kassotaki, K. (2012). Perceptions of father parenting style, empathy, and self-esteem among Greek preadolescents. Marriage & Family Review, 48(3), 293-309. Retrieved from (accessed last 10 March 2019).
Arnett, J. J. (1999). Adolescent storm and stress, reconsidered. American psychologist, 54(5), 317. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 February 2019).
Arnett, J. J. (2010). Adolescence and emerging adulthood (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Aunola, K., Nurmi, J. E., Onatsu‐Arvilommi, T., & Pulkkinen, L. (1999). The role of parents' self‐esteem, mastery‐orientation and social background in their parenting styles. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 40(4), 307-317.
Bacus, Marites P. (2014). Parenting Styles, Self-Concept and Attitude of Students: A Causal Model on Academic Performance. International Conference on Economics, Social Sciences and Languages (ICESL'14) May 14-15, 2014 Singapore.
Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental psychology, 4(1p2), 1. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 January 2019).
Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substanceuse.Journal of Early Adolescence, 11,56-95.
Bean, R. A., Bush, K. R., McKenry, P. C., & Wilson, S. M. (2003). The impact of parental support, behavioral control, and psychological control on the academic achievement and self-esteem of African American and European American adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 18(5), 523-541. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 January 2019).
Biabangard, E. (2005). The relationship between self-esteem, achievement motivation, academic progress in high school students in Tehran. Journal of Psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology Azahra University, (4), 131-144.
Bogenschneider, K., 2006, Family policy matters: How policymaking affects families and what professionals can do, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 February 2019).
Branden, N. (1969). The psychology of self-esteem. New York: Bantam.
Buri, J. R. (1989). Parental authority questionnaire. Journal of personality assessment, 57(1), 110-119.
Coopersmith, S. (1967). The Antecedents of Self-Esteem. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman.
Dalisay, M. F. (2014). Parenting Styles and Self-Esteem among Criminology Students of Lyceum of the Philippines University-Batangas. Batangas City.
Darling, N., & Steinberg, L. (1993). Parenting style as context: An integrative model. Psychological bulletin, 113(3), 487. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 January 2019).
Deshpande, A., & Chhabriya, M. (2013). Parenting styles and its effects on adolescents’ self-esteem. International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Technology (IJIET), 310-315.
DeHart, T., Pelham, B. W., & Tennen, H. (2006). What lies beneath: Parenting style and implicit self-esteem. Journal Of Experimental Social Psychology, 42(1), 1-17. Retrieved from (accessed last 12 March, 2019)
Diener, C. I., & Dweck, C. S. (1978). An analysis of learned helplessness: Continuous changes in performance, strategy, and achievement cognitions following failure. Journal of personality and social psychology, 36(5), 451.
Dornbusch, S. M., Ritter, P. L., Leiderman, P. H., Roberts, D. F., & Fraleigh, M. J. (1987). The relation of parenting style to adolescent school performance. 1987, 58, 1244-1257.
Driscoll Lucy C., (2013). Parenting Style and Self-esteem.
Dwairy, M., & Menshar, K. E. (2006). Parenting style, individuation, and mental health of Egyptian adolescents. Journal of adolescence, 29(1), 103-117. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 January 2019).
Erol, R., & Orth, U. (2011). Self-esteem development from age 14 to 30 years: A longitudinal study. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 101(3), 607-619. doi:10.1037/a0024299.
Garcia, F., & Gracia, E. (2009). Is always authoritative the optimum parenting style? Evidence from Spanish families. Adolescence, 44(173), 101-131. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 February 2019).
Gilongos, N. N., & Guarin, M. J. G. (2013). Parenting styles, children’s perceivedrelationship with parents, and their social adjustment. Paper presented at the InternationalConference on Social Science Research, Penang, Malaysia.
Glasgow, K. L., Dornbusch, S. M., Troyer, L., Steinberg, L., & Ritter, P. L. (1997). Parenting styles, adolescents' attributions, and educational outcomes in nine heterogeneous high schools. Child development, 68(3), 507-529. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 February 2019).
Graybill, D., Strawniak, M., Hunter, T., & O’Leary, M. (1987). Effects of playing versus observing violent versus nonviolent video games on children’s aggression. A Quarterly Journal of Human Behavior, 24, 1-8.
Grusec, J. E., & Goodnow, J. J. (1994). Impact of parental discipline methods on the child's internalization of values: A reconceptualization of current points of view. Developmental Psychology, 30(1), 4–19. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 January 2019).
Grusec, J. (2002). Parental socialization and children’s acquisition of values. In M. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting (Vol. 5, pp. 245–281). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Gfroerer, K., Kern, R., & Curlette, W. (2004). Research support for individual psychology’s parenting model. Journal of Individual Psychology, 61, 379–388. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 January 2019).
Hallsten, L., Rudman, A., & Gustavsson, P. (2012). Does contingent self-esteem increase during higher education?. Self And Identity, 11(2), 223-236. Retrieved from (accessed last 21 March 2019).
Hosogi, M., Okada, A., Fujii, C., Noguchi, K., & Watanabe, K. (2012). Importance and usefulness of evaluating self-esteem in children. BioPsychoSocial medicine, 6(1), 9. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 January 2019).
Kamerman, S. B., & Kahn, A. J. (1978). Family Policy: Government and Families in Fourteen Countries. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 February 2019).
Kaplan, R., & Saccuzzo, D. (2008). Psychological testing: Principles, applications, and issues. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 February 2019).
Kordi, A., & Baharudin, R. (2010). Parenting attitude and style and its effect on children's school achievements. International journal of psychological studies, 2(2), 217.
Lamborn, S. D., Mounts, N. S., Steinberg, L., & Dornbusch, S. M. (1991). Patterns of competence and adjustment among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families. Child development, 62(5), 1049-1065. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 January 2019).
Lane, J., Lane, A. M., & Kyprianou, A. (2004). Self-efficacy, self-esteem, and their impact on academic performance. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 32(3), 247-256. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 February 2019).
Lee, Y. C. (2011). A study of relationship between parenting styles and self-esteem: self-esteem's indicator-parenting styles (Doctoral dissertation, UTAR). Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 July 2019).
Leung, K., Lau, S., & Lam, W. L. (1998). Parenting styles and academic achievement: A cross-cultural study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly (1982-), 157-172. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 February 2019).
Lightfoot, C., Cole, M., Cole, S. (2009). The development of children. New York: Worth Publishers.
Maccoby, E.E., & Martin, J.A. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parentchild interaction. In P.H. Mussen (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology. Vol. 4: Socialization, personality, and social development (pp. 1-101). New York: Wiley
Martínez, I., & García, J. F. (2007). Impact of parenting styles on adolescents' self-esteem and internalization of values in Spain. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 10(2), 338-348. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 January 2019).
Martinez, I., & Garcia, J. F. (2008). Internalization of values and self-esteem among Brazilian teenagers from authoritative, indulgent, authoritarian, and neglectful homes. ADOLESCENCE-SAN DIEGO-, 43(169), 13. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 January 2019).
Maslow A. H. (1987). Motivation and Personality (3rd ed.). New York: Harper & Row.
Mehrafza, M. 2004. The Relationship Between Child-Rearing Practices, Creativity and Academic Achievement Among Students in High School’ City of Tabriz. Iran University of Tabriz, Tabriz.
Milevsky, A., Schlechter, M., Netter, S., & Keehn, D. (2007). Maternal and paternal parenting styles in adolescents: Associations with self-esteem, depression and life-satisfaction. Journal of child and family studies, 16(1), 39-47. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 January 2019).
Nketsia, Eric Nana (2013). Influence of Parental Styles on Adolescents Self-esteem.
Openshaw, D. K., Thomas, D. L., & Rollins, B. C. (1984). Parental influences of adolescent self-esteem. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 4(3), 259-274. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 January 2019).
Orth, U., Robins, R. W., & Widaman, K. F. (2012). Life-span development of self-esteem and its effects on important life outcomes. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 102(6), 1271-1288. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 January 2019).
Orth, U., Trzesniewski, K. H., & Robins, R. W. (2010). Self-esteem development from young adulthood to old age: A cohort-sequential longitudinal study. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 98(4), 645-658. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 January 2019).
Pilongo, L. W. E., Aparece, A. E., & Tirol, G. O. (2013). Risky and Sexual Behaviors Among Young People of the University of Bohol. University of Bohol Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 1(1). Retrieved from, (accessed last 10 February 2019).
Pomerantz, E. M., Grolnick, W. S., & Price, C. E. (2005). The role of parents in how children approach achievement. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of Competence and Motivation. New York: Guilford Press.
Robila, M. (2014). Handbook of family policies across the globe (Vol. 10, pp. 978-1). New York, NY: Springer. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 February 2019).
Robins, R. W., Hendin, H. M., & Trzesniewski, K. H. (2001). Measuring global self-esteem: Construct validation of a single-item measure and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Personality and social psychology bulletin, 27(2), 151-161. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 January 2019).
Rodrigues, Y., Veiga, F., Fuentes, M. C., & García, F. (2013). Parenting and adolescents' self-esteem: The Portuguese context. Revista de Psicodidáctica, 18(2), 395-416. Retrieved from, (accessed last 10 January 2019).
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSE). Acceptance and commitment therapy. Measures package, 61, 52. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 January 2019).
Shamah, R. M. (2011). Parenting children of different ages: Adjusting child rearing practices. Dissertation Abstracts International, 72. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 January 2019).
Sharma, G., & Pandey, N. (2015). Parenting styles and its effect on self-esteem of adolescents. International Journal of Indian Psychology, 3(1), 29-39. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 February 2019).
Shyny T. Y. (2017). Construction and Validation of PS-FFQ (Parenting Style Four Factor Questionnaire). Retrieved from, (accessed 15 January 2019).
Spilka, B., Hood, R. W., Hunsberger, B., & Gorsuch, R. L. (2003). The psychology of religion: An empirical approach. New York: Guilford.
Steinberg, L„ Elmen, J. D„ & Mounts, N. S. (1989). Authoritative parenting, psychosocial maturity, and academic success among adolescents. Child Development, 60, 1424-1436. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 February 2019).
Steinberg, L., Lamborn, S.D., Darling, N., Mounts, N.S., & Dornbusch, S.M. (1994). Over-Time Changes in Adjustment and Competence among Adolescence from Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful Families. Child Development, 65(3), 754-770. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 February 2019).
Steinberg, L., Mounts, N. S., Lamborn, S. D., & Dornbusch, S. M. (1991). Authoritative parenting and adolescent adjustment across varied ecological niches. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 1,19- 36.
Trzesniewski, K. H., Donnellan, M. B., & Robins, R. W. (2003). Stability of self-esteem across the life span. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(1), 205. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 January 2019).
Turner, E. A., Chandler, M., & Heffer, R. W. (2009). The influence of parenting styles, achievement motivation, and self-efficacy on academic performance in college students. Journal of college student development, 50(3), 337-346. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 February 2019).
Wagner, J., Lüdtke, O., Jonkmann, K., & Trautwein, U. (2012). Cherish Yourself: Longitudinal Patterns and Conditions of Self-Esteem Change in the Transition to Young Adulthood. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, doi:10.1037/a0029680. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 February 2019).
Wentzel, K. R. (1994). Family functioning and academic achievement in middle school: A social-emotional perspective. Journal of Early Adolescence, 14, 268–291.
Williams, L. R., Degnan, K. A., Perez-Edgar, K. E., Henderson, H. A., Rubin, K. H., Pine, D. S., ... & Fox, N. A. (2009). Impact of behavioral inhibition and parenting style on internalizing and externalizing problems from early childhood through adolescence. Journal of abnormal child psychology, 37(8), 1063-1075. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 January 2019).
Yang, F., & Liang, N. (2008). A study on the influence of early experiences on adolescents' implicit self-esteem. Psychological Science (China), 31(3), 556-561.
Yang, W., & Zhou, W. (2008). What accounts for Chinese-American children's high academic performance: A literature review of parental influences and home environment. Gifted Education International, 24(1), 88-104. Retrieved from, (accessed last 15 February 2019).


Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 University of Bohol Multidisciplinary Research Journal

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.